The CBMS Act mandates the gathering of information on security. This section explains the data items to be collected which may pertain to peace and order situation in the community. Similar to asking mortality questions in the Health Section, asking the experience of household members being victim/s of crime should be handled with care. Thus, please practice tactful interviewing as you will be collecting sensitive information and details that may spark emotions from the respondents.
Collecting CBMS data on security, peace and order can be potentially used to generate statistics on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators on Goal 11. Sustainable Cities and Communities and Goal 16. Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. The CBMS may be able to support the generation of the community-level statistics on the SDG indicators listed below.
|Goal 11: |
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable
By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive, and accessible, green, and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels
|Target 16.1: |
Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
|Indicator 16.1.3: |
Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months
Indicator 16.1.4: Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live
|Target 16.3: |
Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
|Indicator 16.3.1: |
Proportion of victims of violence who reported their victimization to authorities
|Target 16.5 |
Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
|Indicator 16.5.1 |
Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who were asked to pay or who paid a bribe to a public official
Begin by reading the section introduction to the respondent:
“The next set of questions will ask about how you or your household members feel about your neighborhood and possible experiences as victims of crime in the past 12 months. This might be a sensitive topic, but we encourage you to answer the questions as it might help achieve peace and order in your community or Barangay.”
O01: Feel safe walking alone in the area
Feeling safe means being free from either harm or hurt, emotionally or physically. The purpose of this question is to know the respondent’s feeling of safety or security in their area. (Source: LFS/APIS 2020)
This question aims to measure the extent to which people worry about their personal safety in general, and the extent of a person’s fear for him/herself and for his/her household imposes limits on their opportunities and movement.
Ask the respondent, “How safe do you feel walking alone in your area (i.e., neighborhood or village) at night?”. Select among the listed categories with their corresponding code provided by the respondent.
|5||I’m afraid to be alone|
O02: Victims of crime
In the Philippines, crime is defined as the act and omission punishable by law; it is also referred to as felony. (Source: The Revised Penal Code of the Philippines. Chapter 1, Article 3 of Act No. 3815, “An Act Revising the Penal Code and Other Penal Laws”, 1930)
Ask the respondent, “In the past 12 months (March 01, 2022 - February 28, 2023), were you or any of your household members victim/s of crime/s? (e.g., theft, assault, stalking, rape, fraud, burglary, and/or vandalism)”. Select ‘1’ for Yes, or ‘2’ for No. If the respondent answers ‘2’ for No, skip to Section P. Social Protection Programs.
O03: Types of crime
Item O03 will be asked to all the respondents who answered ‘1’ for Yes in O02.
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) classified the crimes commonly asked in victimization surveys. In general, victimization experience is divided into personal victimization experience, and household crime experience.
Ask the respondent, “What crime/s was/were (NAME) a victim of? Was the household member a victim of _____?”. Ask the respondent by mentioning each type of crime.
Refer to the table below of the type of crime. Each type is answerable by ‘1’ for Yes, or ‘2’ for No, or ‘9’ for Prefer not to answer.
|A||Theft of personal property (pickpocketing, other thefts)|
|B||Robbery (theft by using violence)|
|C||Assault and threat|
|D||Psychological violence (mobbing, stalking)|
|E||Sexual offenses (sexual assault, rape)|
|F||Fraud (cheating, credit card fraud, internet fraud)|
|I||Vehicle theft (motor vehicle, car, motorcycle, bicycle, theft from vehicles)|
|J||Housebreaking (domestic burglary, attempted burglary)|
|K||Vandalism (damage to cars, graffiti)|
|Z||Others, specify _____|
For code ‘G’ Corruption/bribery/extortion, ask the additional question, “In particular, did anybody working in that government-run facility or institution ask or oblige you or any member of your family to give money, gift, donation, favor, or anything of value for any reasons or purposes?”.
Personal victimization experiences are those that affect only one person. These include crimes with contact between offender and victim (such as assault, sexual assault, street robbery) but also non-contact crimes in which the victim is deprived of personal property such as a wallet or a mobile phone. Meanwhile, household crimes cover vehicle-related crimes, housebreaking and domestic burglary, as well as damage to household and other property. Household crimes pertain to acts against vehicles and properties that are usually shared in use by the household members.
(Source: Manual on Victimization Surveys, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
The following are the types of crime that pertain to personal victimization experiences and household crimes. All inclusions and definitions were sourced from the 2019 Philippine Standard Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (PSCCS).
A. Theft of personal property (pickpocketing, other thefts)
Theft of personal property from a person - This includes pick pocketing and bag snatching.
Other theft of personal property, n.e.c. - This includes theft without breaking and entering dwelling; theft of property outside the dwelling; theft from garages or sheds and lockups with no connecting door to a dwelling; theft of a bicycle and theft of a pet.
B. Robbery (theft by using violence)
This category includes robbery from the person, and robbery of a car/vehicle.
Robbery from the person in a public location - This includes highway robbery, street robbery, mugging, bag snatching with force.
Robbery from a person in a private location - This includes force or threat of force used to steal during the course of a residential burglary.
Other robbery from the person, n.e.c. - This includes robbery from a person in miscellaneous locations.
Robbery of a car or vehicle - Robbery of a vehicle in transit from the person operating the vehicle or its passengers. This includes carnapping with violence. Also includes carjacking, taxi robbery, robbery of property in a vehicle in transit, robbery of a security van, robbery in or from a railway.
C. Assault and threat
Assault refers to intentional or reckless application of physical force inflicted upon the body of a person. On the other hand, threat is any type of threatening behavior if it is believed that the threat could be enacted. The following crimes are included in this category.
Serious assault - intentional or reckless application of serious physical force inflicted upon the body of a person resulting in serious bodily injury. This class includes inflicting grievous bodily harm; wounding; aggravated assault; inflicting bodily harm under aggravating circumstances; battery; acid attacks; female genital mutilation; poisoning; assault with a weapon; and forced sterilization.
Minor assault - intentional or reckless application of minor physical force inflicted upon the body of a person resulting in no injury or minor bodily. This includes inflicting minor bodily harm; simple assault; pushing; slapping; kicking; hitting; drugging; and spiking.
Serious threat - threat with the intention to cause death or serious harm. This includes threatening death or serious injury, threatening the death or serious injury of a family member, friend, or another person.
Minor threat - threat with the intention to cause minor harm. This includes threatening minor injury, threatening minor injury to a family member or friend.
Other assaults or threats - acts causing or threatening injury or harm not described or classified in PSCCS 02011-02012.
D. Psychological violence (mobbing, stalking)
Stalking - unwanted communication, following or watching a person. This includes cyber-stalking-
Peering in the window or lingering outside the residence of the woman or her chil-
Other acts of stalking, n.e.c.
Harassment in the workplace
Harassment - acts that harass or are intended to harass a person.
Harassment by a colleague, supervisor or other co-worker in a work environment or related to employment.
Sexual harassment related to work, education or training, workplace harassment, mobbing in the workplace and bullying in the workplace
Harassment by a person not in a work environment and unrelated to employment.
Obstructing a duly authorized land survey. o- Mobbing or bullying outside the workplace, menacing phone calls not amounting to stalking, private nuisance and acts causing alarm or distress.
E. Sexual offenses (sexual assault, rape)
(Sexual violence )- unwanted sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or contact or communication with unwanted sexual attention without valid consent or with consent as a result of intimidation, force, fraud, coercion, threat, deception, use of drugs or alcohol, or abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability. This includes sexual penetration with physical force, deception to procure sex, drug-facilitated rape; non-consensual, and sexual penetration without physical force.
Rape - sexual penetration without valid consent or with consent as a result of intimidation, force, fraud, coercion, threat, deception, use of drugs or alcohol, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of benefits.
Rape with force - sexual penetration without valid consent inflicted upon a person with force.
Rape without force - sexual penetration without valid consent inflicted upon a person without force.
Statutory rape - sexual penetration with or without consent with a person below the age of consent, or with a person incapable of consent by reason of law.
Sexual assault - unwanted sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or contact or communication with unwanted sexual attention not amounting to rape. This includes drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual harassment, sexual assault committed against a marital partner against her/his will and sexual assault against a helpless person.
Physical sexual assault - Sexual assault with physical contact of a person. This also includes drug-facilitated sexual assault; unwanted groping or fondling; and sexual assault by abuse of position.
Other sexual assault
Take photo or video coverage of a person or group of persons performing sexual act or any similar activity
Copy or reproduce, or to cause to be copied or reproduced, such photo or video or recording of sexual act or any similar activity
Sell or distribute, or cause to be sold or distributed, such photo or video or recording of sexual act
Publish or broadcast, or cause to be published or broadcast, whether in print or broadcast media, or show or exhibit the photo or video coverage or recordings of such sexual act or any similar activity.
F. Fraud (cheating, credit card fraud, internet fraud)
Fraud - obtaining money or other benefit or evading a liability through deceit or dishonest conduct.
Financial fraud - fraud involving financial transactions for the purpose of personal gain. This includes using financial consumer products such as bank accounts, credit cards, cheques, store cards or online banking systems.
Financial fraud against the State - procurement and contractor fraud and false claims fraud not amounting to medical fraud.
Financial fraud against natural or legal persons - mortgage fraud, securities fraud, investment fraud, and bank fraud.
Other acts of financial fraud - bouncing checks or issuing a check without sufficient funds; making a false or misleading statement in application, report or document filed under the financing company, among others.
Other acts of fraud - possession, creation or use of false weights for measure; medical fraud or quackery not amounting to malpractice or medical negligence; fraudulent failure to supply consumer goods or obtaining goods by fraud; false accounting; hiding or destroying money; wire fraud; insurance fraud; impersonation; fraudulent pretense of marriage; setting up or operating a pyramid scheme.
Corruption - unlawful acts as defined in the United Nations Convention against corruption and other national and international legal instruments against corruption.
Bribery - promising, offering, giving, soliciting or accepting an undue advantage to or from a public official or a person who directs or works in a private sector entity, directly or indirectly, in order that the person act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties.
Active bribery - promising, offering or giving, to a public official or a person who directs or works in a private sector entity, directly or indirectly, an undue advantage in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties.
This includes active bribery of a public official, active bribery of a foreign public official and of an official of a public international organization, and active bribery in the private sector.
- Passive bribery - solicitation or acceptance by a public official or a person who directs or works in a private sector entity, directly or indirectly, of an undue advantage in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties.
This includes passive bribery of a public official, passive bribery of a foreign public official and of an official of a public international organization and passive bribery of an official in the private sector.
Embezzlement - misappropriation or diversion by a public official or a person who directs or works in a private sector entity of any property, public or private funds or securities or any other thing of value entrusted to the public official or person by virtue of his or her position.
Abuse of functions - performance of or failure to perform an act, in violation of laws, by a public official in the discharge of his or her functions for the purpose of obtaining an undue advantage for himself or herself or for another person or entity.
Extortion – willful oppression by officials, agents, or employees under color of law.
For the 2022 CBMS, extortion from households will be the focus. Thus, in the revised question.
I. Vehicle theft (motor vehicle, car, motorcycle, bicycle; theft from vehicles)
Theft of a motorized land vehicle – carnapping without violence. This also includes larceny of a car, van or truck and theft of a motorcycle.
Theft of parts of a motorized land vehicle – trading of spare parts from a carnapped vehicle. This also includes theft of car tires, motors, transmission, windows, etc. This excludes siphoning oil or fuel from a motor vehicle.
Theft of personal property from a vehicle – theft of a purse from a vehicle; theft of an electronic device from a vehicle; theft of a GPS device; and siphoning gas or oil
Theft of a bicycle, boat or aircraft and parts. It must be noted that this excludes hijacking cars and aircraft. Hijacking of vehicles may involve assault and threat, which can be recorded in category ‘Z’.
J. Housebreaking (domestic burglary, attempted burglary)
Burglary of permanent private residences - burglary of a house, apartment or other dwelling that is the habitual place of residence of the victim.
Burglary of non-permanent private residences - burglary of summer houses, burglary of secondary houses, breaking, entering, and stealing from hotel rooms or other temporarily rented premises.
Attempted burglary – with or without damage to households as a result of the attempt
K. Vandalism (damage to cars, graffiti)
- There is no specific offense on vandalism for household crime at PSCCS sub-class level. But PSCCS 0504 - Property Damage includes vandalism as one of its offenses.
Z. Others, specify
This category will have to be selected if the options given above did not illustrate the crime experienced by the household/household member/s. Other crimes that are not mentioned in categories from ‘A’ to ‘K’ may include theft of business property, theft of livestock, intellectual property offenses, trafficking in persons, abduction, arson, defamation, libel, slander, discrimination, violation of personal data privacy, among others.
If the crime is not among the listed, select ‘Z’ for Others, specify, you will be prompted to a page where you can enter the specific crime experienced by the household/household member.
You may refer to the codebook for your further reference. You may also refer to the 2019 PSSCS, which can be accessed at: https://psa.gov.ph/classification/psccs/downloads/2019%20PSCCS.pdf
Please make use of the NOTES page so you can record other details that might help you best categorize the crime information provided to you by the respondent.
O04: Victimized by any crime
O04 will be asked to all household members who answered at least one (1) of the types of crime by O03.
Ask the respondent, “Who among your household members were victimized by any crime?”.
Enter the names of the household member/s who was/were victimized by any crimes. If the household member experienced ‘I’ vehicle theft, ‘J’ housebreaking, or ‘K’ vandalism, select all names of the household members.
If answer in O03 A to H, and Z is ‘1’ for Yes, enter the line number of household member victimized by crime.
Due to the sensitivity of the topic on exposure to illegal drugs, item O04-H will not be asked.
O05: Number of times became a victim/experienced crime
O05 will be asked to all household members who answered at least one of the types of crime in O04.
Ask the respondent, “In the past 12 months (March 01, 2022 to February 28, 2023), how many times did (NAME) become a victim/experience crime?”.
All the household members who answered in O04 will be listed. Enter the number of times the household member experienced crime by type of crime under each of their names as provided by the respondent.
Due to the sensitivity of the topic on exposure to illegal drugs, item O05-H will not be asked.
O06: Location of most recent crime
O06 will be asked to all the respondents who answered at least one of the types of crime listed in O04.
Ask the respondent, “Where did the most recent crime/s happen?”. Refer to the table below and select the corresponding code of the location of the most recent crime as provided by the respondent.
|1||Within the barangay|
|2||Outside the barangay but within city/municipality|
|3||Outside the city/municipality but within province|
|4||Outside the province|
Due to the sensitivity of the topic on exposure to illegal drugs, item O06-H will not be asked. Code 1 will also be automatically selected on item for Housebreaking, Codes ‘2’, ‘3’, and ‘4’, shall not apply to Housebreaking, since we are referring to the house where the respondent is currently living in, which is within the barangay.
O07: Crime reported to the police/barangay
Ask the respondent, “Was the crime reported to the police/barangay?”. Select ‘1’ for Yes, or ‘2’ for No as provided by the respondent.
If the respondent answered ‘1’ for Yes in this item, proceed to the next type of crime.
O08. Main reason for crime not being reported
O08 will be asked to all respondents who answered ‘2’ for No in O07.
Ask the respondent, “What was the main reason why crime was not reported to authorities?”. Refer to the listed reasons below. Then, select the corresponding code as provided by the respondent.
|3||No financial support|
|4||Thinks no one would listen/believe|
|9||Others, specify _____|
If the main reason is not among the listed, select code ‘9’ for Others, specify. Enter the other reason why the crime was not reported on the space provided.
Based on the UNODC Manual on Crime Victimization Surveys, other possible reasons may include, among others:
The affected household member did not think that the incident was not important enough, too minor to warrant police involvement.
The affected household member felt that the incident was a private or personal matter.
The affected household member felt that the authorities could do nothing to help, authorities may be biased towards or are in favor of the perpetrator or will not be willing to interview.